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Persimmon Improvement

Persimmon is part of the Diospyros genus, the Ebenaceae family.

Caucasian Persimmon (Diospyros lotus L.) In their wild form there are many large trees in Bulgaria of that sort. Leaves are plain with complete longish form. The Caucasian persimmon is either monoecious or dioecious plant. Blossoms are tiny pink-yellow, four-foliar.

The improvement of the persimmon is a complicated process. The 'chipbudding' is used as a method of improvement. The results from that method are quite good and are in the order of 80-95% transplant. The best results are gained in March-April through the improvement of the so called "awake bud". The cut off on the pad is done in the following way: the knife is directed under 25-30 degress angle and 2mm in depth. The size of the cut off is between 10mm and 15mm. The knife is being moved steadily with slight shaking so that it won't be wedged.

The grafts are gathered from uterine trees in the middle of January till the end of February. After treatment the grafts are put in nylon bags together with some water. The prepared bags are later stored in fridge or refrigerator room with temperature from -2 to 0 °С. The graft is cut off the stick symetrically regarding the size of the pad.

The graft is placed in the lower part so that it may be as near as possible to the pad. If needed the graft can be framed additionally in order to gain a smooth surface which will lead to good results with the transplant.

The modern tendencies in improvement include the use of tapes with special synthetic cover which can be easily pierced by the bud of the graft. The binding of the grafts starts from the bottom upwards while the tape is easily pulled out. It would not be advisable to strain the tape unduly, because there is a possibility for the pad to be incised.

It is also better if the binding is done in the upper part, since when the covering tape is released particular amount of time is saved.

At the end of the period of improvement (the end of April) all the pads should be broken at distance of 50-60mm from the graft.

In middle May an operation of cutting the pad at height of 10mm above the graft is to be completed. If the soil dries too much a watering is done so that the grafts may transplant to the pads. When the grafts grow up to height of 10-15cm the binding cover should be cut.